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Prevalence of dementia

References for prevalence of dementia in Europe

  1. 1998. Cognitive function and dementia in six areas of England and Wales: the distribution of MMSE and prevalence of GMS organicity level in the MRC CFA Study. The Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (MRC CFAS). Psychol.Med. 28(2), 319-335.
  2. ANDERSEN K., LOLK A., NIELSEN H., ANDERSEN J., OLSEN C., KRAGH-SORENSEN P., 1997. Prevalence of very mild to severe dementia in Denmark. Acta Neurol.Scand. 96(2), 82-87.
  3. AZZIMONDI G., D'ALESSANDRO R., PANDOLFO G., FERUGLIO F.S., 1998. Comparative study of the prevalence of dementia in two Sicilian communities with different psychosocial backgrounds. Neuroepidemiology 17(4), 199-209.
  4. BDZAN L.B., TURCZYNSKI J., SZABERT K., 2007. [Prevalence of dementia in a rural population]. Psychiatr.Pol. 41(2), 181-188.
  5. BOERSMA F., EEFSTING J.A., VAN DEN B.W., KOETER M., VAN T.W., 1998. Prevalence of dementia in a rural Netherlands population and the influence of DSM-III-R and CAMDEX criteria for the prevalence of mild and more severe forms. J.Clin.Epidemiol. 51(3), 189-197.
  6. BORJESSON-HANSON A., EDIN E., GISLASON T., SKOOG I., 2004. The prevalence of dementia in 95 year olds. Neurology 63(12), 2436-2438.
  7. CRISTINA S., NICOLOSI A., HAUSER W.A., LEITE M.L., GEROSA E., NAPPI G., 2001. The prevalence of dementia and cognitive deficit in a rural population of 2442 residents in northern Italy. A door-to-door survey. Eur.J.Neurol. 8(6), 595-600.
  8. DE R.D., BERARDI D., MENCHETTI M., FERRARI G., SERRETTI A., DALMONTE E., FRATIGLIONI L., 2005. Occurrence of cognitive impairment and dementia after the age of 60: a population-based study from Northern Italy. Dement.Geriatr.Cogn Disord. 19(2-3), 97-105.
  9. FERINI-STRAMBI L., MARCONE A., GARANCINI P., DANELON F., ZAMBONI M., MASSUSSI P., TEDESI B., SMIRNE S., 1997. Dementing disorders in north Italy: prevalence study in Vescovato, Cremona Province. Eur.J.Epidemiol. 13(2), 201-204.
  10. FICHTER M.M., MELLER I., SCHROPPEL H., STEINKIRCHNER R., 1995. Dementia and cognitive impairment in the oldest old in the community. Prevalence and comorbidity. Br.J.Psychiatry 166(5), 621-629.
  11. GABRYELEWICZ T., 1999. [The prevalence of dementia in the population of the Warsaw district of Mokotow from 65 to 84 years of age]. Psychiatr.Pol. 33(3), 353-366.
  12. GASCON-BAYARRI J., RENE R., DEL BARRIO J.L., DE PEDRO-CUESTA J., RAMON J.M., MANUBENS J.M., SANCHEZ C., HERNANDEZ M., ESTELA J., JUNCADELLA M., RUBIO F.R., 2007. Prevalence of dementia subtypes in El Prat de Llobregat, Catalonia, Spain: the PRATICON study. Neuroepidemiology 28(4), 224-234.
  13. GOSTYNSKI M., JDACIC-GROSS V., GUTZWILLER F., MICHEL J.P., HERRMANN F., 2002. [Prevalence of dementia in the City of Zurich]. Soz.Praventivmed. 47(5), 330-335.
  14. HELMER C., PERES K., LETENNEUR L., GUTTIEREZ-ROBLEDO L.M., RAMAROSON H., BARBERGER-GATEAU P., FABRIGOULE C., ORGOGOZO J.M., DARTIGUES J.F., 2006. Dementia in subjects aged 75 years or over within the PAQUID cohort: prevalence and burden by severity. Dement.Geriatr.Cogn Disord. 22(1), 87-94.
  15. KURZ X., SCUVEE-MOREAU J., SALMON E., PEPIN J.L., VENTURA M., DRESSE A., 2001. [Dementia in Belgium: prevalence in aged patients consulting in general practice]. Rev.Med.Liege 56(12), 835-839.
  16. LOBO A., SAZ P., MARCOS G., DIA J.L., DE-LA-CAMARA C., 1995. The prevalence of dementia and depression in the elderly community in a southern European population. The Zaragoza study. Arch.Gen.Psychiatry 52(6), 497-506.
  17. LOBO A., SAZ P., MARCOS G., DIA J.L., DE-LA-CAMARA C., VENTURA T., MONTANES J.A., LOBO-ESCOLAR A., AZNAR S., 2007. Prevalence of dementia in a southern European population in two different time periods: the ZARADEMP Project. Acta Psychiatr.Scand. 116(4), 299-307.
  18. LOPEZ P.S., LLINAS R.J., VILALTA F.J., LOZANO FERNANDEZ DE P.L., 1995. The prevalence of dementia in Girona. Neurologia 10(5), 189-193.
  19. MANUBENS J.M., MARTINEZ-LAGE J.M., LACRUZ F., MURUZABAL J., LARUMBE R., GUARCH C., URRUTIA T., SARRASQUETA P., MARTINEZ-LAGE P., ROCCA W.A., 1995. Prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and other dementing disorders in Pamplona, Spain. Neuroepidemiology 14(4), 155-164.
  20. OBADIA Y., ROTILY M., GRAND-GUILLAUD A., GUELAIN J., CECCALDI M., SEVERO C., PONCET M., ALPEROVITCH A., 1997. The PREMAP Study: prevalence and risk factors of dementia and clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease in Provence, France. Prevalence of Alzheimer's Disease in Provence. Eur.J.Epidemiol. 13(3), 247-253.
  21. OTT A., BRETELER M.M., VAN H.F., CLAUS J.J., VAN DER CAMMEN T.J., GROBBEE D.E., HOFMAN A., 1995. Prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia: association with education. The Rotterdam study. BMJ 310(6985), 970-973.
  22. PI J., OLIVE J.M., ROCA J., MASANA L., 1996. Prevalence of dementia in a semi-rural population of Catalunya, Spain. Neuroepidemiology 15(1), 33-41.
  23. PRENCIPE M., CASINI A.R., FERRETTI C., LATTANZIO M.T., FIORELLI M., CULASSO F., 1996. Prevalence of dementia in an elderly rural population: effects of age, sex, and education. J.Neurol.Neurosurg.Psychiatry 60(6), 628-633.
  24. RAVAGLIA G., FORTI P., MAIOLI F., SACCHETTI L., MARIANI E., NATIVIO V., TALERICO T., VETTORI C., MACINI P.L., 2002. Education, occupation, and prevalence of dementia: findings from the Conselice study. Dement.Geriatr.Cogn Disord. 14(2), 90-100.
  25. RIEDEL-HELLER S.G., BUSSE A., AURICH C., MATSCHINGER H., ANGERMEYER M.C., 2001. Prevalence of dementia according to DSM-III-R and ICD-10: results of the Leipzig Longitudinal Study of the Aged (LEILA75+) Part 1. Br.J.Psychiatry 179, 250-254.
  26. ROELANDS M., WOSTYN P., DOM H., BARO F., 1994. The prevalence of dementia in Belgium: a population-based door-to-door survey in a rural community. Neuroepidemiology 13(4), 155-161.
  27. SKOOG I., NILSSON L., PALMERTZ B., ANDREASSON L.A., SVANBORG A., 1993. A population-based study of dementia in 85-year-olds. N.Engl.J.Med. 328(3), 153-158.
  28. STEVENS T., LIVINGSTON G., KITCHEN G., MANELA M., WALKER Z., KATONA C., 2002. Islington study of dementia subtypes in the community. Br.J.Psychiatry 180, 270-276.
  29. TOGNONI G., CERAVOLO R., NUCCIARONE B., BIANCHI F., DELL'AGNELLO G., GHICOPULOS I., SICILIANO G., MURRI L., 2005. From mild cognitive impairment to dementia: a prevalence study in a district of Tuscany, Italy. Acta Neurol.Scand. 112(2), 65-71.
  30. VILALTA-FRANCH J., LOPEZ-POUSA S., LLINAS-REGLA J., 2000. [The prevalence of dementias in a rural area. A study in Girona]. Rev.Neurol. 30(11), 1026-1032.
  31. VON S.E., VIITANEN M., DE R.D., WINBLAD B., FRATIGLIONI L., 1999. Aging and the occurrence of dementia: findings from a population-based cohort with a large sample of nonagenarians. Arch.Neurol. 56(5), 587-592.

References for preavalence of early-onset dementia in Europe

  1. Edland SD, Rocca WA, Petersen RC, Cha RH, Kokmen E. Dementia and Alzheimer disease incidence rates do not vary by sex in Rochester, Minn. Arch Neurol 2002 Oct;59:1589-1593.
  2. Rocca WA, Cha RH, Waring SC, Kokmen E. Incidence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease: a reanalysis of data from Rochester, Minnesota, 1975-1984. Am J Epidemiol 1998 Jul 1;148:51-62.
  3. Schoenberg BS, Kokmen E, Okazaki H. Alzheimer's disease and other dementing illnesses in a defined United States population: incidence rates and clinical features. Ann Neurol 1987 Dec;22:724-729.
  4. Kay DW, Forster DP, Newens AJ. Long-term survival, place of death, and death certification in clinically diagnosed pre-senile dementia in northern England. Follow-up after 8-12 years. Br J Psychiatry 2000 Aug;177:156-162.
  5. Newens AJ, Forster DP, Kay DW, Kirkup W, Bates D, Edwardson J. Clinically diagnosed presenile dementia of the Alzheimer type in the Northern Health Region: ascertainment, prevalence, incidence and survival. Psychol Med 1993 Aug;23:631-644.
  6. McGonigal G, Thomas B, McQuade C, Starr JM, MacLennan WJ, Whalley LJ. Epidemiology of Alzheimer's presenile dementia in Scotland, 1974-88. BMJ 1993 Mar 13;306:680-683.
  7. Harvey RJ, Skelton-Robinson M, Rossor MN. The prevalence and causes of dementia in people under the age of 65 years. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2003 Sep;74:1206-1209.
  8. Ratnavalli E, Brayne C, Dawson K, Hodges JR. The prevalence of frontotemporal dementia. Neurology 2002 Jun 11;58:1615-1621.
  9. Andreasen N, Blennow K, Sjodin C, Winblad B, Svardsudd K. Prevalence and incidence of clinically diagnosed memory impairments in a geographically defined general population in Sweden. The Pitea Dementia Project. Neuroepidemiology 1999;18:144-155.
  10. Rorsman B, Hagnell O, Lanke J. Prevalence and incidence of senile and multi-infarct dementia in the Lundby Study: a comparison between the time periods 1947-1957 and 1957-1972. Neuropsychobiology 1986;15:122-129.
  11. Sulkava R, Wikstrom J, Aromaa A, et al. Prevalence of severe dementia in Finland. Neurology 1985 Jul;35:1025-1029.
  12. Bickel H, Burger K, Hampel H, et al. [Presenile dementia in memory clinics--incidence rates and clinical features]. Nervenarzt 2006 Sep;77:1079-1085.
  13. Rosso SM, Donker KL, Baks T, et al. Frontotemporal dementia in The Netherlands: patient characteristics and prevalence estimates from a population-based study. Brain 2003 Sep;126:2016-2022.
  14. Campion D, Dumanchin C, Hannequin D, et al. Early-onset autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease: prevalence, genetic heterogeneity, and mutation spectrum. Am J Hum Genet 1999 Sep;65:664-670.
  15. Ott A, Breteler MM, van HF, et al. Prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia: association with education. The Rotterdam study. BMJ 1995 Apr 15;310:970-973.
  16. Hagnell O, Lanke J, Rorsman B, Ohman R, Ojesjo L. Current trends in the incidence of senile and multi-infarct dementia. A prospective study of a total population followed over 25 years; the Lundby Study. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr 1983;233:423-438.
  17. Knopman DS, Petersen RC, Edland SD, Cha RH, Rocca WA. The incidence of frontotemporal lobar degeneration in Rochester, Minnesota, 1990 through 1994. Neurology 2004 Feb 10;62:506-508.
  18. Kokmen E, Beard CM, Offord KP, Kurland LT. Prevalence of medically diagnosed dementia in a defined United States population: Rochester, Minnesota, January 1, 1975. Neurology 1989 Jun;39:773-776.
  19. Ott A, Breteler MM, van HF, Stijnen T, Hofman A. Incidence and risk of dementia. The Rotterdam Study. Am J Epidemiol 1998 Mar 15;147:574-580.
  20. Treves T, Korczyn AD, Zilber N, et al. Presenile dementia in Israel. Arch Neurol 1986 Jan;43:26-29.
  21. Hofman A, Rocca WA, Brayne C, et al. The prevalence of dementia in Europe: a collaborative study of 1980-1990 findings. Eurodem Prevalence Research Group. Int J Epidemiol 1991 Sep;20:736-748.
  22. Rocca WA, Hofman A, Brayne C, et al. Frequency and distribution of Alzheimer's disease in Europe: a collaborative study of 1980-1990 prevalence findings. The EURODEM-Prevalence Research Group. Ann Neurol 1991 Sep;30:381-390.
  23. Rocca WA, Hofman A, Brayne C, et al. The prevalence of vascular dementia in Europe: facts and fragments from 1980-1990 studies. EURODEM-Prevalence Research Group. Ann Neurol 1991 Dec;30:817-824.

References for prevalence of dementia in Eastern Europe

  1. Bidzan L, Turczynski, J. 2005. [Environment and cognitive functions in a population 60 years and older]. Psychiatr Pol 39: 1211-1218.
  2. Chandra V, Ganguli, M, Pandav, R, Johnston, J, Belle, S, DeKosky, ST. 1998. Prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias in rural India: the Indo-US study. Neurology 51: 1000-1008.
  3. Gabryelewicz T. 1999. [The prevalence of dementia in the population of the Warsaw district of Mokotow from 65 to 84 years of age]. Psychiatr Pol 33: 353-366.
  4. Gavrilova SI, Sudareva, LO, Kalyn Ia, B. 1987. [Epidemiology of dementias in the middle-aged and elderly]. Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 87: 1345-1352.
  5. Hofman A, Rocca, WA, Brayne, C, Breteler, MM, Clarke, M, Cooper, B, Copeland, JR, Dartigues, JF, da Silva Droux, A, Hagnell, O, et al. 1991. The prevalence of dementia in Europe: a collaborative study of 1980-1990 findings. Eurodem Prevalence Research Group. Int J Epidemiol 20: 736-748.
  6. Jorm AF, Korten, AE, Henderson, AS. 1987. The prevalence of dementia: a quantitative integration of the literature. Acta Psychiatr Scand 76: 465-479.
  7. Klich-Raczka A, Dubiel, M, Sulicka, J, Zyczkowska, J, Pitucha, M. 2006. [Comprehensive geriatric assessment in hospitalized patients aged 80 years and more]. Przegl Lek 63: 109-112.
  8. Klimkowicz-Mrowiec A, Dziedzic, T, Slowik, A, Szczudlik, A. 2006. Predictors of poststroke dementia: results of a hospital-based study in poland. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 21: 328-334.
  9. Klimkowicz A, Dziedzic, T, Slowik, A, Szczudlik, A. 2002. Incidence of pre- and poststroke dementia: cracow stroke registry. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 14: 137-140.
  10. Kruja JRM, Prifti V, Buda L, Agolli D. 2002. Epidemiology of dementia in Tirana - Albania (Poster from 6th EFNS Congress, Vienna, 2002). Eur J Neurol 9: 105-161.
  11. Linka E, Bartko, G, Agardi, T, Kemeny, K. 2000. Dementia and depression in elderly medical inpatients. Int Psychogeriatr 12: 67-75.
  12. Lobo A, Launer, LJ, Fratiglioni, L, Andersen, K, Di Carlo, A, Breteler, MM, Copeland, JR, Dartigues, JF, Jagger, C, Martinez-Lage, J, Soininen, H, Hofman, A. 2000. Prevalence of dementia and major subtypes in Europe: A collaborative study of population-based cohorts. Neurologic Diseases in the Elderly Research Group. Neurology 54: S4-9.
  13. Osuntokun BO, Ogunniyi, AO, Lekwauwa, UG. 1992. Alzheimer's disease in Nigeria. Afr J Med Med Sci 21: 71-77.
  14. Pajak A, Kawalec, E, Pomykalska, E, Topor-Madry, R, Orlowiejska-Gillert, M, Szczudlik, A. 1998. [Cognitive impairment and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Project CASCADE Krakow. IV. Prevalence of cognitive impairment in relation to age, sex, education and history of myocardial infarction in men and women at age 65-78, residents of a rural province in Poland (Tarnobrzed)]. Przegl Lek 55: 697-704.
  15. Parnowski T, Gabryelewicz, T, Matuszewska, E, Jarkiewicz, J. 1993. [Prevalence of the dementia syndrome among elderly people in an urban area. A pilot study]. Psychiatr Pol 27: 515-520.
  16. Ritchie K, Kildea, D. 1995. Is senile dementia "age-related" or "ageing-related"?--evidence from meta-analysis of dementia prevalence in the oldest old. Lancet 346: 931-934.
  17. Ritchie K, Lovestone, S. 2002. The dementias. Lancet 360: 1759-1766.
  18. Rocca WA, Hofman, A, Brayne, C, Breteler, MM, Clarke, M, Copeland, JR, Dartigues, JF, Engedal, K, Hagnell, O, Heeren, TJ, et al. 1991. The prevalence of vascular dementia in Europe: facts and fragments from 1980-1990 studies. EURODEM-Prevalence Research Group. Ann Neurol 30: 817-824.
  19. Rossa G. 1997. [The prevalence of Alzheimer's type dementia and vascular dementia in the district of Swiebodzin]. Psychiatr Pol 31: 121-134.
  20. Saks K, Kolk, H, Allev, R, Soots, A, Koiv, K, Paju, I, Jaanson, K, Schneider, G. 2001. Health status of the older population in Estonia. Croat Med J 42: 663-668.
  21. Sobow T, Wojtera, M, Kloszewska, I. 2006. [Prevalence of potentially reversible cognitive function disorders in patients of a memory dysfunction clinic]. Psychiatr Pol 40: 845-854.
  22. Stefanova E, Pekmezovic, T, Nalic, D, Kostic, VS. 2004. The diagnosis of dementia is unspecified--report of a pilot survey of dementia in belgrade. Gerontology 50: 260-261.
  23. Sternberg E, Gawrilowa, S. 1978. [Clinical and epidemiological findings of a psychogeriatric investigation in the soviet union (author's transl)]. Nervenarzt 49: 347-353.
  24. Vincze G, Almos, P, Boda, K, Dome, P, Bodi, N, Szlavik, G, Magloczki, E, Pakaski, M, Janka, Z, Kalman, J. 2007. Risk factors of cognitive decline in residential care in Hungary. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 22: 1208-1216.
  25. Wender M, Mularczyk, J, Modestowicz, R. 1990. [Epidemiology of Alzheimer's disease in the selected region of Wielkopolska (town and commune Steszew)]. Przegl Epidemiol 44: 215-221.
  26. Wimo A, Winblad, B, Aguero-Torres, H, von Strauss, E. 2003. The magnitude of dementia occurrence in the world. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 17: 63-67.
  27. Zhang MY, Katzman, R, Salmon, D, Jin, H, Cai, GJ, Wang, ZY, Qu, GY, Grant, I, Yu, E, Levy, P, et al. 1990. The prevalence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in Shanghai, China: impact of age, gender, and education. Ann Neurol 27: 428-437.



Last Updated: Thursday 08 October 2009


  • Acknowledgements

    The EuroCoDe project received financial support from the European Commission. Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on its behalf is responsible for any use that might be made of the following information. Alzheimer Europe also gratefully acknowledges the support it received from Fondation Médéric Alzheimer for this project.
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  • Fondation Médéric Alzheimer