Basket | Login



2020: Legal capacity and decision making

Agich GJ (2003).Dependence and autonomy in old age: an ethical framework for long-term care. Cambridge University Press.

Alloa E, Bedorf T, Grüny C & Klass T (2012). Einleitung. In: Eid. (eds.):Leiblichkeit. Geschichte und Aktualität eines Konzepts, Tübingen, 2012, p. 1-4.

Alzheimer Europe (2001).EPOCH: Equality in the provision of care at home. Luxembourg: Alzheimer

Alzheimer Europe (2012).The ethical issues linked to restrictions of freedom of people with dementia. Alzheimer Europe.

Alzheimer Europe (2013).The ethical issues linked to the perceptions and portrayal of dementia and people with dementia. Alzheimer Europe.

Alzheimer Europe (2016).Yearbook: Decision making and legal capacity in dementia.Alzheimer Europe

Alzheimer Scotland (2020).COVID-19: the hidden impact - a report on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on people with dementia and carers living at home. Edinburgh: Alzheimer Scotland

Alzheimer’s Society (2020). Sex and intimacy in care homes. Alzheimer's Society. See:

Appelbaum PS (2007). Assessment of patients’ competence to consent to treatment.The New England Journal of Medicine, 357: 1834–40.

Appelbaum PS & Grisso T (2001).MacArthur Competence assessment tool for clinical research (MacCAT-CR). Professional Resource Press: Toronto, Canada.

Appelbaum PS, Bonnie RJ & Karlawish JH (2005). The capacity to vote of persons with Alzheimer's disease.Am J Psychiatry, 2094-2100.

Banerjee S (2009).The use of antipsychotic medication for people with dementia: Time for action A report for the Minister of State for Care Services. Department of Health.

BBC (2020).Atlanta police chief resigns over Rayshard Brooks shooting. BBC news website: accessed online on 14 June 2020.

BBC (2020).Covid-19: Do not resuscitate decisions complaints up. BBC news website: accessed on 18 December 2020.

Beauchamp TL & Childress JF (2001).Principles of Biomedical Ethics (5th edition). Oxford University Press.

Beauchamp T & Childress J (2019). Principles of Biomedical Ethics: Marking Its Fortieth Anniversary. The American Journal of Bioethics, 19(11): 9–12.

Berzlanovich AM, Schöpfer J & Keil W (2012). Deaths Due to Physical Restraint. Deutsches Ärzteblatt Online.

Birchley G, Jones K, Huxtable R, Dixon J, Kitzinger J & Clare L (2016). Dying well with reduced agency: A scoping review and thematic synthesis of the decision-making process in dementia, traumatic brain injury and frailty.BMC Medical Ethics, 17(1): 46.

Booker S “Star” & Booker RD (2018). Shifting Paradigms: Advance Care Planning for Pain Management in Older Adults With Dementia.The Gerontologist, 58(3): 420–427.

Boyle G (2014). Recognising the agency of people with dementia.Disability & Society, 29(7): 1130–40.

Bullenkamp J & Voges B (2004). Voting preferences of outpatients with chronic mental illness in Germany.Psychiatric Services, 55, 12:1440-2.

Casarett DJ & Karlawish JHT (2000). Are Special Ethical Guidelines Needed For Palliative Care Research?Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 20(2): 130–139.

Clare L (2003). Managing threats to self: Awareness in early-stage Alzheimer’s disease.Social Science & Medicine, 57: 1017-29.

Clare L, Quinn C, Jones IR & Woods RT (2016). “I Don’t Think Of It As An Illness”: Illness Representations in Mild to Moderate Dementia.Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 51(1): 139–150.

Coors M (2020). Embodied Time. The Narrative Refiguration of Aging. In Mark Schweda, Michael Coors, Claudia Bozzaro (eds.): Aging and Human Nature. Perspectives from Philosophical, Theological, and Historical Anthropology (International Perspectives on Aging 25), Cham, 2020, p. 129–141.

Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights (2011).The right of people with disabilities to live independently and be included in the community. Issue Paper. Council of Europe Publishing

Craigie J, Bach M, Gurbai S, Kanter A, Kim SYH, Lewis O & Morgan G (2019). Legal capacity, mental capacity and supported decision-making: Report from a panel event.International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 62: 160–168.

Davidson G, Brophy L, Campbell J, Farrell SJ, Gooding P & O’Brien A.-M (2016). An international comparison of legal frameworks for supported and substitute decision-making in mental health services.International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 44: 30–40.

Davis DS. (2017). Ethical issues in Alzheimer’s disease research involving human subjects.Journal of Medical Ethics, 43(12): 852–856.

Dautzenberg P, van Marum R, van der Hammen R & Paling H (2003). Patients and families desire a patient to be told the diagnosis of dementia: a survey by questionnaire on a Dutch memory clinic.International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 18: 777-9.

Deal M (2003). Disabled people’s attitudes toward other impairment groups: A hierarchy of impairments.Disability & Society, 18(7): 897–910.

Department of Health (2009).Living well with dementia: A national dementia strategy.London: DH Publications

Department of Health of the Republic of Ireland (2020).Ethical framework for decision-making in a pandemic. Department of Health. Please see:,in%20acute%20and%20community%20settings.

Deutscher Bundestag (2010).Unterrichtung durch die Bundesregierung Sechster Bericht zur Lage der Älteren Generation in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland - Altersbilder in der Gesellschaft und Stellungnahme der Bundesregierung. Drucksache 17/3815.

Devi N (2013). Supported Decision-Making and Personal Autonomy for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities: Article 12 of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 41(4): 792–806.

Dewing J (2007). Participatory research: a method for process consent for people who have dementia,Dementia, 6(1): 11–25.

Donnelly M (2016). Best Interests in the Mental Capacity Act: Time to say Goodbye?Medical Law Review, 24(3): 318–332.

Dubois B (2018). The Emergence of a New Conceptual Framework for Alzheimer’s Disease.Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 62(3): 1059–1066.

Dubois B, Feldman HH, Jacova C, Cummings JL, DeKosky ST, Barberger-Gateau P, Delacourte A, Frisoni G, Fox NC, Galasko D, Gauthier S, Hampel H, Jicha GA, Meguro K, O’Brien J, Pasquier F, Robert P, Rossor M, Salloway S, … Scheltens P (2010). Revising the definition of Alzheimer’s disease: A new lexicon.The Lancet Neurology, 9(11): 1118–1127.

Dubov A (2015). Ethical persuasion: The rhetoric of communication in critical care: Ethical persuasion.Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 21(3): 496–502.

Dworkin G (2020). "Paternalism", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy(Summer 2020 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), .

El-Islam MF (2005). Some cultural aspects of the Arab patient–doctor relationship.International Psychiatry, 7: 18–20.

Elvish R, James I & Milne D (2010). Lying in dementia care: An example of a culture that deceives in people’s best interests.Aging & Mental Health, 14(3): 255–262.

European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) (2014). Cases considered by international complaints bodies. FRA. Downloaded on 13 December 2020 at:

European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) (2020).Fundamental Rights Report - 2020. FRA

Folstein MF, Folstein FE & McHugh PR (1975). "Mini-mental state": A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician.Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12(3): 189-198.

Fuchs T (2008).  Die Würde des menschlichen Leibes. In: W. Härle / B. Vogel (Hrsg.):Begründung von Menschenwürde und Menschenrechten, Freiburg; Basel; Wien, 2008, p. 202-219.

Fanning J (2017). Mental Capacity as a Concept in Negligence: Against an Insanity Defence. Psychiatry,Psychology and Law, 1–21.

Flynn E & Arstein-Kerslake A (2014). Legislating personhood: Realising the right to support in exercising legal capacity.International Journal of Law in Context, 10(1): 81–104.

for the AgeCoDe & AgeQualiDe study group, Luck T, Rodriguez, F S, Wiese B, van der Leeden C et al.  (2017). Advance directives and power of attorney for health care in the oldest-old – results of the AgeQualiDe study.BMC Geriatrics, 17(1): 85.

Freema MC, Kolappa K, de Almeida JMC, Kleinman A, Makhashvili N, Phakathi S, Saracenno B & Thornicroft G (2015). Reversing hard won victories in the name of human rights: A critique of the General Comment on Article 12 of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.The Lancet Psychiatry, 2(9): 844–850.

Froehle C (2016).The Evolution of an Accidental Meme: How one little graphic became shared and adapted by millions. Accessed online on 23 December 2020: Please see: evolution-of-an-accidental-meme-ddc4e139e0e4#. tm1cbg2vn

Gardner J (2013). Ethics and Law. In J Skorupski (2013).The Routledge Companion to Ethics. Abingdon: Routledge (420-9).

German Ethics Council (2018). Benevolent Coercion - tensions between welfare and autonomy in professional caring relationships. Opinion: executive summary and recommendations.Berlin: Deutscher Ethikrat.

Glezer A and Devido JJ (2017). Evaluation of the Capacity to Marry.J Am Acad Psychiatry Law,45: 292–97.

Goffman I (1990).Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. Penguin Books

Gómez-Vírseda C, de Maeseneer Y & Gastmans C (2019). Relational autonomy: What does it mean and how is it used in end-of-life care? A systematic review of argument-based ethics literature.BMC Medical Ethics, 20(1): 76.

Gove D, Downs M, Vernooij-Dassen M & Small N (2016). Stigma and GPs’ perceptions of dementia,Aging & Mental Health, 20(4): 391-400.

Grigorovich A & Kontos P (2016). Advancing an Ethic of Embodied Relational Sexuality to Guide Decision-Making in Dementia Care.The Gerontologist, gnw137.

Grisso T & Appelbaum PS (1998).Assessing competence to consent to treatment: A guide for physicians and other health professionals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Guy AM Widdershoven & Tineke A Abma (2011).Help and Coercion from a Care Ethics Perspective. INTECH Open Access Publisher.

Haasum Y, Fastbom J, Fratiglioni L & Johnell K (2012). Undertreatment of osteoporosis in persons with dementia? A population-based study.Osteoporosis International, 23(3): 1061–1068.

Hall R, Hall R, Myers W & Chapman M (2009). Testamentary capacity: history, physicians' role, requirements, and why wills are challenged.Clinical Geriatrics, 18-24.

Hanssen I (2004). An Intercultural Nursing Perspective on Autonomy.Nursing Ethics, 11(1): 28–41.

Hem MH, Molewijk B & Pedersen R (2014). Ethical challenges in connection with the use of coercion: A focus group study of health care personnel in mental health care.BMC Medical Ethics, 15(1): 82.

Hermann H, Trachsel M, Elger BS & Biller-Andorno N (2016). Emotion and Value in the Evaluation of Medical Decision-Making Capacity: A Narrative Review of Arguments.Frontiers in Psychology, 7.

Hinshaw SP (2007).The mark of shame: stigma of mental illness and an agenda for change. Oxford University Press.

Howard R, Burns A & Schneider L (2020). Antipsychotic prescribing to people with dementia during COVID-19.The Lancet/Neurology, 19: 892.

Howe E (2012). Informed consent, participation in research, and the Alzheimer’s patient.Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience, 9(5–6): 47–51.

Jacoby R & Steer P (2007). How to assess capacity to make a will.BMJ, 335(7611): 155–157.

JBI (Joanna Briggs Institute) (2002). Physical restraint - Pt 1: Use in acute and residential care facilities.Best Practice, 6(3): 1-6.

JBI (Joanna Briggs Institute) (2002). Physical restraint - Pt 2: Minimisation in acute and residential care facilities.Best Practice, 6(4): 1-6.

Jha A, Tabet T & Orrell M (2001). To tell or not to tell – comparison of older patients’ reaction to their diagnosis of dementia and depression.International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 16: 879-885.

Jones EE, Farina A, Hastorf AH, Markus H, Miller DT & Scott RA (1984).Social stigma: the psychology of marked relationships. WH Freeman and Company.

Jongsma K & Schweda M. (2018). Return To Childhood? – Against The Infantilisation of People With LateOnset Dementia.Bioethics, 10.1111/bioe.12458.

Keightley J & Mitchell A (2004). What factors influence mental health professionals when deciding whether or not to share a diagnosis of dementia with the person?Aging & Mental Health, 8(1): 13-20.

Kim SY (2010).Evaluation of capacity to consent to treatment and research. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Koczy P, Becker C, Rapp K, Klie T, Beische D, Büchele G, Kleiner A, Guerra V, Rißmann U, Kurrle S & Bredthauer D (2011). Effectiveness of a Multifactorial Intervention to Reduce Physical Restraints in Nursing Home Residents: Reducing physical restraints in nursing home residents.Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 59(2): 333–339.


Kontos P, Grigorovich A, Kontos AP & Miller K-L (2016). Citizenship, human rights, and dementia: Towards a new embodied relational ethic of sexuality.Dementia, 15(3): 315–329.

Kruse A (2017).Lebensphase hohes Alter: Verletzlichkeit und Reife, Heidelberg.

Kurzban R & Leary MR (2001). Evolutionary origins of stigmatization: the function of social exclusion.Psychological Bulletin, 127: 187-208.


Kvale S & Brinkmann S (2009).Interviews: learning the craft of qualitative research interviewing. Sage


Lerner MJ (1980).The belief in a just world: a fundamental delusion. New York: Plenum.


Lin, BG & Phelan JC (2001). Conceptualizing stigma.Annual Review of Sociology, 27: 363-85.


Link BG & Phelan JC (2006). Stigma and its public health implications. The Lancet, 367: 528-9.


Low L-F, McGrath M, Swaffer K & Brodaty H (2019). Communicating a diagnosis of dementia: A systematic mixed studies review of attitudes and practices of health practitioners.Dementia, 18(7–8): 2856–2905.

Loza N & Omar MH (2017). The rights of persons with mental disabilities: is the UN Convention the answer? An Arab perspective.BJPsych International, 14(3): 53-4.

Lundberg K (2018). Dementia Care Work Situated Between Professional and Regulatory Codes of Ethics.Ethics and Social Welfare, 12(2): 133–146.

Mahomed F, Stein MA & Patel V (2018). Involuntary mental health treatment in the era of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.PLOS Medicine,15(10), e1002679.

Marson DC (2012). Clinical and Ethical Aspects of Financial Capacity in Dementia: A Commentary.American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 1.

Mahajan AP, Sayles JN, Patel, VA, Remien RH & Sawires SR (2008). Stigma in the HIV/AIDS epidemic: a review of the literature and recommendations for the way forward.AIDS, 22(2): 67-79.

Martinez-Pujalte A (2019). Legal Capacity and Supported Decision-Making: Lessons from Some Recent Legal Reforms.Laws, 8(1): 4.

Marzanski M (2000). Would you like to know what is wrong with you? On telling the truth to patients with dementia.Journal of Medical Ethics, 26: 108-113,

Mental Welfare Commission for Scotland (2017).Good practice guide: Covert medication. Edinburgh: Mental Welfare Commission.

Miyamoto M, George DR & Whitehouse PJ (2011). Government, professional and public efforts in Japan to change the designation of dementia ( chihō ).Dementia, 10(4): 475–486.

Moye J, Sabatino CP & Weintraub Brendel R (2013). Evaluation of the Capacity to Appoint a Healthcare Proxy.The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21(4): 326–336.

Narchi J & Ritzi S (2019). Freiheitseinschränkende Maßnahmen bei Menschen mit kognitiven Beeinträchtigungen im Akutkrankenhaus.Geriatrie up2date, 1(03): 267–280.

Newerla A (2017). Demenz als kritisches Moment: Ordnungsversuche im Akutkrankenhaus.Zeitschrift Für Medizinische Ethik, 3: 193–204.

Nhat Hanh T (2019).Voir. Dépasser les illusions liées à la perception pour s’ouvrir au monde. Paris: Editions PLON.

Nilsson A (2012).Who gets to decide? Right to legal capacity for persons with intellectual and psychosocial disabilities. Strasbourg: Council of Europe/Commissioner for Human Rights.

Nuffield Council on Bioethics (2009).Dementia: ethical issues. Cambridge: Cambridge Publishers Ltd. http://nu

Owen GS, Gergel T, Stephenson LA, Hussain O, Rifkin L & Keene AR (2019). Advance decision-making in mental health – Suggestions for legal reform in England and Wales.International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 64: 162–177.

Palmer, B. W., & Harmell, A. L. (2016). Assessment of Healthcare Decision-making Capacity.Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology,31(6): 530–540.

Parker M (2016). Getting the Balance Right: Conceptual Considerations Concerning Legal Capacity and Supported Decision-Making. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry, 13(3): 381–393.

Pathare S & Shields LS (2012). Supported Decision-Making for Persons with Mental Illness: A Review.Public Health Reviews, 34(2): 15.

Parker R & Aggleton P (2003). HIV and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination: a conceptual framework and implications for action.Social Science and Medicine, 57(1): 13-24.

Pearl AL (2013) Article 12 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the legal capacity of disabled people: the way forward?Leeds Journal of Law and Criminology, 1, 1–30. Available at editions/2013-edition (accessed 1/7/2020).

Peisah C, Sorinmade OA, Mitchell L & Hertogh CMPM (2013). Decisional capacity: Toward an inclusionary approach.International Psychogeriatrics, 25(10): 1571–1579.

Poole M, Bond J, Emmett C, Greener H, Louw SJ, Robinson L & Hughes JC (2014). Going home? An ethnographic study of assessment of capacity and best interests in people with dementia being discharged from hospital.BMC Geriatrics, 14(1): 56.

Porteri C (2018). Advance directives as a tool to respect patients’ values and preferences: Discussion on the case of Alzheimer’s disease.BMC Medical Ethics, 19(1).

Pratt R & Wilkinson H (2003). A psychosocial model of understanding the experience of receiving a diagnosis of dementia. Dementia, theInternational Journal of Social Research and Practice, 2(2): 181-199.

Quinn C, Jones IR & Clare L (2017). Illness representations in caregivers of people with dementia.Aging & Mental Health, 21(5): 553–561.

Quinn C, Morris RG & Clare L (2018). Beliefs About Dementia: Development and Validation of the Representations and Adjustment to Dementia Index (RADIX).The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 26(6): 680–689.

Redley M, Hughes JC & Holland A (2010). Voting and mental capacity: voting is a political right, not a matter of competence to make decisions.BMJ, 341: 466-467.

Redmond FC (1987). Testamentary capacity.Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law, 247-256.

Regan P (2011). Patient participation in public elections: a literature review .Nurs Management, 17(10): 32-36.

Ritzi S & Kruse A (2019). Würde, Freiheit, Leiblichkeit. Ethische Kategorien bei der Anwendung freiheitsentziehender Maßnahmen bei Menschen mit Demenz im Akutkrankenhaus. In:Z Gerontol Geriat2019 · 52 (Suppl 4): p. 243–248.

Sabat SR (2008). Positioning and Conflict Involving a Person with Dementia: A Case Study. In F. M. Moghaddam, R. Harré, & N. Lee (Eds.),Global Conflict Resolution Through Positioning Analysis(pp. 81–93). Springer New York.

Sartorius N (2006). The meanings of health and its promotion.Croat Mec J,(47(4): 662-4.

Scambler G (2009).  Health-related stigma.Sociology of Health and Illness, 31(3): 441-55.

Scholten M & Gather J (2018). Adverse consequences of article 12 of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities for persons with mental disabilities and an alternative way forward.Journal of Medical Ethics, medethics-2017-104414.

Scholten M & Gather J (2018). Conflicting Interpretations or Conflicting Opinions? Being Clear about the UN-CRPD. Blog in Journal of Medical Ethics. See:

Scholten M, Gather J & Vollmann J (2021). Equality in the informed consent process: competence to consent, substitute decision making, and discrimination of persons with mental disorders,Journal of Medicine and Philosophy

Scholten M, Gieselmann A, Gather J & Vollmann J (2019). Psychiatric advance directives under the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: Why advance instructions should be able to override current preferences.Frontiers in Psychiatry, 10: 631.

Skowron P (2019). Giving substance to ‘the best interpretation of will and preferences’.International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 62: 125–134.

Shimizu MM, Raicher I, Yasumasa Takashashi D, Caramelli P & Nitrini R (2008). Disclosure of the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: caregivers’ opinions in a Brazilian sample. Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria, 66(3B): 625–630.

Shulman KI, Cohen CA, Kirsh F C, Hull IM & Champine PR (2007). Assessment of testamentary capacity and vulnerability to undue influence.Am J Psychiatry, 164: 722-727

Smebye KL, Kirkevold M & Engedal K (2015). Ethical dilemmas concerning autonomy when persons with dementia wish to live at home: A qualitative, hermeneutic study.BMC Health Services Research, 16(1): 21.

Smith AK, Lo B & Sudore R (2013). When Previously Expressed Wishes Conflict With Best Interests.JAMA Internal Medicine, 173(13): 1241.

Smith DW (2018). “Phenomenology", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer Edition), Edward N. Zalta (Ed.),

Smith A & Sullivan D (2012). A new ball game: The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and assumptions in care for people with dementia.Journal of Law and Medicine,20: 28–34.

Sousa LB Vilar M, Firmino H & Simões MR (2015). Financial Capacity Assessment Instrument (IACFin): Development and Qualitative Study Using Focus Groups,Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 22(4): 571-585,

Stangor C & Crandall CS (2003). Threat and the social construction of stigma. In Heatherton TF, Kleck RE, Hebl MR and Hull JG.The Social Psychology of Stigma. The Guilford Press, 62-87.

Steinert C, Steinert T, Flammer E & Jaeger S (2016). Impact of the UN convention on the rights of persons with disabilities (UN-CRPD) on mental health care research—A systematic review.BMC Psychiatry, 16(1): 166.

Swedish Corona Commission (2020).Report of the Swedish Corona Commission on care of older people during the pandemic. Consulted online on 21 December at:

Szmukler G (2017). The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: ‘Rights, will and preferences’ in relation to mental health disabilities.International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 54: 90–97.

Taylor JS (2017). Autonomy. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. Accessed online on 11 June 2020 at:

Truog RD (2012). Patients and Doctors—The Evolution of a Relationship.New England Journal of Medicine, 366(7): 581–585.

United Nations (2020 - May).Policy brief: the impact of COVID-19 on older persons. United Nations.

van den Dungen P, van Kuijk L, van Marwijk H, van der Wouden J, Moll van Charante E, van der Horst H & van Hout H (2014). Preferences regarding disclosure of a diagnosis of dementia: A systematic review.International Psychogeriatrics, 26(10): 1603–1618.

van den Hooff S & Goossensen A (2014). How to increase quality of care during coercive admission? A review of literature.Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences,28(3): 425–434.

van der Burg W (2010). Law and Ethics: The Twin Disciplines.Erasmus Working Paper Series on Jurisprudence and Socio-Legal Studies, No. 10-02, June 28, 2010, Version: 1,0.

Van Duffel S (2012). The nature of rights debate rests on a mistake.Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, 93(1): 104–123.

Van Hout HP, Vernooij-Dassen M, Jansen DA & Stalman WA (2006). Do general practitioners disclose correct information to their patients suspected of dementia and their caregivers? A prospective observational study.Aging & Mental Health, 10(2): 151-155.

Waddington L & Broderick A (2018).Combatting disability discrimination and realising equality A comparison of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and EU equality and non-discrimination law. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

Werner P, Karnieli-Miller O & Eidelman S (2013). Current knowledge and future directions about the disclosure of dementia: A systematic review of the first decade of the 21st century.Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 9(2): e74–e88.

Woods B, Arosio F, Diaz A, Gove D, Holmerová I, Kinnaird L, Mátlová M, Okkonen E, Possenti M, Roberts J, Salmi A, Buuse S, Werkman W & Georges J (2019). Timely diagnosis of dementia? Family carers’ experiences in 5 European countries.International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 34(1): 114–121.

World Health Organisation (March 2020).Ethics & COVID-19 – Restrictive Measures and Social Distancing. WHO.

World Health Organisation (April  2020).Addressing Human Rights as Key to the COVID-19 Response. WHO

Zürcher T, Elger B & Trachsel M (2019). The notion of free will and its ethical relevance for decision-making capacity.BMC Medical Ethics, 20(1): 31.



Last Updated: Thursday 11 February 2021


  • Acknowledgements

    The report entitled “Legal capacity and decision making: The ethical implications of lack of legal capacity on the lives of people with dementia” received funding under an operating grant from the European Union’s Health Programme (2014–2020).
  • European Union