Basket | Login



2018: Intercultural care and support

Adamson J (2001). Awareness and understanding of dementia in African/Caribbean and South Asian families. Health & Social Care in the Community, 9(6), 391‑396.

Adamson J & Donovan J (2005). ‘Normal disruption’: South Asian and African/Caribbean relatives caring for an older family member in the UK. Social Science & Medicine, 60(1), 37‑48.

Adelman S, Blanchard M, Rait G, Leavey G & Livingston G (2011). Prevalence of dementia in African–Caribbean compared with UK-born White older people: Two-stage cross-sectional study. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 199(2), 119–125.

Age Action (2015).Intercultural care home project report. Accessed online on 9 July 2018 at:

Ahmed A, Wilding MA, Haworth­Lomax R & McCaughan S (2017). Promoting diversity and inclusiveness in dementia services in Salford. University of Salford Manchester.

Alzheimer Europe (2009). Ethical principles in relation to advance directives and personhood.

Alzheimer Europe (2013).The ethical issues linked to the perceptions and portrayal of dementia and people with dementia. Alzheimer Europe.

Alzheimer Europe (2015). Ethical dilemmas faced by health and social care professionals providing dementia care in care homes and hospital settings: a guide for use in the context of ongoing professional care training. Alzheimer Europe.

Alzheimer Europe (2016). Discussion paper on ethical issues linked to the changing definitions/use of terms related to Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer Europe.

Alzheimer Europe (2017). Discussion paper on the possible implications for ethics, policy and practice of recognising dementia as a disability. (Alzheimer Europe reports can be accessed at:

Angermeyer MC & Matschinger H (2004). The stereotype of schizophrenia and its impact on discrimination against people with schizophrenia: results from a representative survey in Germany. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 30(4), 1049‑1061.

Antelius E & Kiwi M (2015). Frankly, None of Us Know What Dementia Is: Dementia Caregiving Among Iranian Immigrants Living in Sweden. Care Management Journals, 16(2), 79‑94.

Antelius E & Plejert C (2016). Ethnoculturally-profiled care: Dementia caregiving targeted towards Middle Eastern immigrants living in Sweden. Anthropology & Aging, 37(1), 9‑26.

APPGD (All‐Party Parliamentary Group on Dementia) (2013). Dementia does not discriminate: The experiences of black, Asian and minority ethnic communities. London: The Stationery Office.

Andersen B and Blinder S (2017). Who Counts as a Migrant? Definitions and their Consequences: Migration Observatory Briefing, COMPAS, University of Oxford: Oxford.

Ar Y & Karanci AN (2017). Turkish adult children as caregivers of parents with Alzheimer’s disease: Perceptions and caregiving experiences. Dementia, 1471301217693400.

Ardila A (2003). Culture in our brains: Cross-cultural differences in the brain-behaviour relationships. In Toomela A (ed.). Cultural Guidance in the Development of the Human Mind, Ablex, Westport, CT, pp. 63–86.

Ardila A (2005). Cultural Values Underlying Psychometric Cognitive Testing. Neuropsychology Review, 15(4), 185‑195.

Ardila A, Bertolucci PH, Braga LW, Castro-Caldas A, Judd T, Kosmidis MH, … Rosselli M (2010). Illiteracy: The Neuropsychology of Cognition Without Reading. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 25(8), 689‑712.

Arévalo-Flechas LC, Acton G, Escamilla MI, Bonner PN & Lewis SL (2014). Latino Alzheimer’s caregivers: what is important to them? Journal of Managerial Psychology, 29(6), 661‑684.

Ayalon L & Areán PA (2004). Knowledge of Alzheimer’s disease in four ethnic groups of older adults. Int Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19(1), 51‑57.

Barth F (1998). Ethnic groups and boundaries: The social organization of culture difference. Waveland Press Inc: Long Grove, Illinois.

Baghirathan S (2018). Dementia experiences of Caribbean, Chinese and South Asian people in Bristol. Presentation at Race Equality Foundation event on 15 March 2018 in Bristol (UK).

BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) (2018). Windrush generation: Who are they and why are they facing problems? 18 April 2018.

Beattie A, Daker‐White G, Gilliard J & Means R (2005). ‘They don’t quite fit the way we organise our services’—results from a UK field study of marginalised groups and dementia care. Disability & Society, 20(1), 67‑80.

Beauchamp TL & Childress JF (2001). Principles of Biomedical Ethics (5th edition). Oxford University Press

Berchtold NC & Cotman CW (1998). Evolution in the Conceptualization of Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease: Greco-Roman Period to the 1960s.Neurobiology of Aging, 19(3), 173‑189.

Berdai Chaouni S & De Donder L (2018). Invisible realities: Caring for older Moroccan migrants with dementia in Belgium. Dementia, 147130121876892.

Bhattacharyya S & Benbow SM (2013). Mental health services for black and minority ethnic elders in the United Kingdom: a systematic review of innovative practice with service provision and policy implications. Int Psychogeriatrics,25(03), 359‑373.

Birchard K (1999). Irish government offers an apology to victims of child abuse. The Lancet, 353(9166), 1775.

Blakemore A, Kenning C, Mirza N, Daker-White G, Panagioti M & Waheed W (2018). Dementia in UK South Asians: a scoping review of the literature. BMJ Open,8(4), e020290.

Blendon RJ, Benson JM, Wikler EM, Weldon KJ, Georges J, Baumgart M & Kallmyer BA (2012). The Impact of Experience with a Family Member with Alzheimer’s Disease on Views about the Disease across Five Countries. Int Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 2012, 1‑9.

Bolden GB (2000). Toward understanding practices of medical interpreting: interpreters’ involvement in history taking. Discourse Studies, 2(4), 387-419.

Botsford J, Clarke CL & Gibb CE (2012). Dementia and relationships: experiences of partners in minority ethnic communities: Dementia and relationships. Journal of Advanced Nursing,68(10), 2207‑2217.

Botsford J (2015). Introduction. In (Julia Botsford and Karen Harrison Dening (Eds). Dementia, culture and ethnicity: issues for all. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers (pp. 9-17).

Bowes A & Wilkinson H (2003). « We didn’t know it would get that bad »: South Asian experiences of dementia and the service response. Health & Social Care in the Community, 11(5), 387‑396.

Brooke J, Cronin C, Stiell M & Ojo O (2018). The intersection of culture in the provision of dementia care: A systematic review. Journal of Clinical Nursing,27(17-18), 3241-3253

Cally P, Hirst R, Wilkens M, Kennedy C & Palmer M (undated). Navigating the Health System – A Local Perspective.

Carey N (2012).The epigenetics revolution: how modern biology is rewriting our understanding of genetics, disease and inheritance. London: Icon Books.

Carreiras M, Seghier ML, Baquero S, Estevez A, Lozano A, Devlin JT & Price CJ (2009). An anatomical signature for literacy.Nature, 461(7266), 983–986.

Castro-Caldas A (2004). Targeting regions of interest for the study of the illiterate brain. Int Journal of Psychology, 39(1), 5–17.

Chaaya M, Phung TKT, El Asmar K, Atweh S, Ghusn H, Khoury RM, … Waldemar G (2016). Validation of the Arabic Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale (A-RUDAS) in elderly with mild and moderate dementia. Aging & Mental Health, 20(8), 880‑887.

Chan SM & O’Connor DL (2008). Finding a Voice: The Experiences of Chinese Family Members Participating in Family Support Groups. Social Work with Groups, 31(2), 117‑135.

Cheston R & Bradbury N (2016).Evidence briefing. Dementia, accessibility and minority groups. British Psychological Society

Cipriani G & Borin G (2015). Understanding dementia in the sociocultural context: A review. Int Journal of Social Psychiatry, 61(2), 198‑204.

Cohen M, Werner P & Azaiza F (2009). Emotional reactions of Arab lay persons to a person with Alzheimer’s disease. Aging & Mental Health, 13(1), 31‑37.

Connolly A, Sampson EL & Purandare N (2012). End-of-Life Care for People with Dementia from Ethnic Minority Groups: A Systematic Review. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 60(2), 351‑360.

Cooper C, Tandy AR, Balamurali TBS & Livingston G (2010). A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Ethnic Differences in Use of Dementia Treatment, Care, and Research. The Amer Journal of Ger Psychiat, 18(3), 193‑203.

Cooper C, Rapaport P, Robertson S, Marston L, Barber J, Manela M & Livingston G (2018). Relationship between speaking English as a second language and agitation in people with dementia living in care homes: Results from the MARQUE (Managing Agitation and Raising Quality of life) English national care home survey .Int Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 33(3), 504‑509.

Crisp AH (2005).Every family in the land: understanding prejudice and discrimination against people with mental illness. London: Royal Society of Medicine Press Ltd.

Daker-White G, Beattie AM, Gilliard J & Means R (2002). Minority ethnic groups in dementia care: A review of service needs, service provision and models of good practice. Aging & Mental Health, 6(2), 101‑108.

Degiuli F (2007). A Job with No Boundaries: Home Eldercare Work in Italy .European Journal of Women’s Studies, 14(3), 193‑207.

Dementia Action Alliance (2018). Dementia in gypsy and traveller communities. Accessed on line at:

Denktas S, Koopmans G, Birnie E, Foets M & Bonsel G (2009). Ethnic background and differences in health care use: a national cross-sectional study of native Dutch and immigrant elderly in the Netherlands.Int Journal for Equity in Health, 8(1), 35.

Devlin E, MacAskill S & Stead M (2007). ‘We’re still the same people’: developing a mass media campaign to raise awareness and challenge the stigma of dementia.Int Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 12(1), 47‑58.

Diaz E & Qureshi S (2017). Diagnosis and Management of Immigrants with Dementia. In Sagbakken M & Kumar K (Eds.)Dementia, Ethnic Minorities and Migrants - A Review of the Literature, Report No. 2. Norwegian Centre for Migration and Minority Health (NAKMI) (pp.49-62).

Doshi D & Mehdi N (2017).70 years later survivors recall the horrors of India-Pakistan Partition

Downs M, Small N & Froggatt K (2006). Explanatory models of dementia: links to end-of-life care.Int J Pall Nur, 12(5), 209-213.

Doyle M & Timonen V (2009). The different faces of care work: understanding the experiences of the multi-cultural care workforce.Ageing and Society, 29(03), 337‑350.

Egede-Nissen V, Sellevold GS, Jakobsen R & Sørlie V (2017). Ethical and cultural striving: Lived experiences of minority nurses in dementia care.Nursing Ethics, 24(6), 752‑766.

Ekman S-L, Robins Wahlin T-B, Norberg A & Winblad B (1993). Relationship between bilingual demented immigrants and bilingual/monolingual caregivers.The International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 37(1), 37–54.

Ekman S-L, Robins Wahlin TB, Viitanen M, Norberg A & Winblad B (1994). Clinical practice and service development. Preconditions for communication in the care of bilingual demented persons.International Psychogeriatrics, 6(1), 05-120.

Elliott K S, Di Mino M, Lam D & Mei Tu A (1996). Working with Chinese families in the context of dementia. In G. Yeo, & D. Gallagher-Thompson,Ethnicity and the dementia(pp. 89-108). Washington DC: Taylor & Francis.

Emilsson UM (2012). The staff’s view on dementia and the care in three cultures: A qualitative study in France, Portugal and Sweden.Dementia, 11(1), 31‑47.

European Union (2014). Report on the health status of the Roma population in the EU and the monitoring of data collection in the area of Roma health in the Member States. European Commission.

Fields JA, Ferman TJ, Boeve BF & Smith GE (2011). Neuropsychological assessment of patients with dementing illness.Nature Reviews Neurology, 7(12), 677‑687.

Folstein MF, Folstein SE & McHugh PR (1975). « Mini-mental state ». A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12(3), 189‑198.

Gerritsen D L, Oyebode J & Gove D (2018). Ethical implications of the perception and portrayal of dementia. Dementia, 17(5), 596‑608.

Giebel C M, Worden A, Challis D, Jolley D, Bhui KS, Lambat A … Purandare N (2017). Age, memory loss and perceptions of dementia in South Asian ethnic minorities. Aging & Mental Health, 1‑10.

Goffman E (1963).Stigma: notes on the management of spoiled identity. Penguin Books.

Golan-Shemesh D & Lahav D (2018).Culturally sensitive care and support. PowerPoint Presentation and notes, Alzheimer Europe expert working group meeting at the University of Bradford, 18 May

Goudsmit M, Uysal-Bozkir Ö, Parlevliet JL, van Campen JPCM, de Rooij SE & Schmand B (2017). The Cross-Cultural Dementia Screening (CCD): A new neuropsychological screening instrument for dementia in elderly immigrants.Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 39(2), 163‑172.

Goudsmit M, van Campen J, Schilt T, Hinnen C, Franzen S & Schmand B (2018). One Size Does Not Fit All: Comparative Diagnostic Accuracy of the Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale and the Mini Mental State Examination in a Memory Clinic Population with Very Low Education. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra, 8, 290‑305.

Graaff FM de (2012). Partners in palliative care? Perspectives of Turkish and Moroccan immigrants and Dutch professionals, Dissertation University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam.

Greenwood N, Habibi R, Smith R & Manthorpe J (2015). Barriers to access and minority ethnic carers’ satisfaction with social care services in the community: a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative literature.Health & Social Care in the Community, 23(1), 64‑78.

Groen - Van de Ven L & Smits C (2009). Aandacht, acceptatie en begrip. Mantelzorg aan ouderen in de Suryoye gemeenschap. [Attention, acceptance and understanding. Caring for older adults in the Suryoye community]Cultuur Migratie Gezondheid, 6(4), 198-208.

Grøndahl, V. A., Persenius, M., Bååth, C., & Helgesen, A. K. (2017). The use of life stories and its influence on persons with dementia, their relatives and staff – a systematic mixed studies review. BMC Nursing, 16(28), 1-11

Hailstone J, Mukadam N, Owen T, Cooper C & Livingston G (2017). The development of Attitudes of People from Ethnic Minorities to Help-Seeking for Dementia (APEND): a questionnaire to measure attitudes to help-seeking for dementia in people from South Asian backgrounds in the UK: A questionnaire measure of South Asian attitudes towards help-seeking for dementia. Int Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 32(3), 288‑296.

Hanssen I (2013). The influence of cultural background in intercultural dementia care: exemplified by Sami patients: The influence of cultural background in intercultural dementia care. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 27(2), 231‑237.

Heikkinen SJ (2011). Exclusion of Older Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union to Finland: The Meaning of Intergenerational Relationships. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 26(4), 379–395.

Heikkinen SJ & Lumme-Sandt K (2013). Transnational connections of later-life migrants.Journal of Aging Studies, 7(2), 198-206

Herrmann LK, Welter E, Leverenz J, Lerner AJ, Udelson N, Kanetsky C & Sajatovic M (2018). A Systematic Review of Dementia-related Stigma Research: Can We Move the Stigma Dial?The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 26(3), 316‑331.

Herz M (2018).Thinking about the wellbeing of people living with dementia who are survivors of trauma – the Holocaust as a study case. PowerPoint presentation at Alzheimer Europe annual conference in Berlin (October 2017)

Hussein S & Manthorpe J (2012). The dementia social care workforce in England: Secondary analysis of a national workforce dataset.Aging & Mental Health, 16(1), 110‑118.

Jaakson S, Hemmilä E & Jaakkola U (2017).Cultural Sensitivity in Memory Work: Experiences from Finland. Suomen muistiasiantuntijat ry, Helsinki: Paintek Pihlajamäki Oy

Jaakson S (2018).Cultural Sensitivity Approach – Promoting the Brain Health of Ethnic Minorities. PowerPoint Presentation and notes, Alzheimer Europe expert working group meeting at the University of Bradford, 18 May

Jansson G (2012a). Äldreboendet som flerspråkig arbetsplats Policy och praktik. [The nursing home as a multilingual workplace. Policy and practice.] In B Bihl, J Eriksson, P Andersson and L Lötmarker (eds.), Svenskans beskrivning 32 (pp.102-113).

Jansson G (2012b). Att stötta identitet – en utmaning i den mångkulturella demensvården. [Supporting identity – a challenge in culturally diverse environments in dementia care.] In B Nørgaard and M Bach Andreasen (eds.), Sundhedskommunikation. Kommunikation på sundhedsområdet (pp.77-92). Aalborg: Forskning og udvikling.

Jansson G (2014). Bridging language barriers in multilingual care encounters.Multilingua,33(1-2): 201-232.

Johl N, Patterson T & Pearson L (2016). What do we know about the attitudes, experiences and needs of Black and minority ethnic carers of people with dementia in the United Kingdom? A systematic review of empirical research findings.Dementia, 15(4), 721‑742.

Jolley D, Moreland N, Read K, Kaur H, Jutlla K & Clark M (2009). The ‘Twice a Child’ projects: learning about dementia and related disorders within the black and minority ethnic population of an English city and improving relevant services.Ethnicity and Inequalities in Health and Social Care, 2(4), 4‑9.

Jones EE, Farina A, Hastorf AH, Markus H, Miller DT & Scott RA (1984).Social stigma: the psychology of marked relationships. WH Freeman and Company.

Jutlla K (2015). The impact of migration experiences and migration identities on the experiences of services and caring for a family member with dementia for Sikhs living in Wolverhampton, UK. Ageing and Society,35(05), 1032‑1054.

Karenberg A & Förstl H (2006). Dementia in the Greco-Roman world.J Neurolog Sciences, 244(1-2), 5-9.

Kenning C, Daker-White G, Blakemore A, Panagioti M & Waheed W (2017). Barriers and facilitators in accessing dementia care by ethnic minority groups: a meta-synthesis of qualitative studies.BMC Psychiatry, 17(316), 1-13

Khan F & Tadros G (2014). Complexity in cognitive assessment of elderly British minority ethnic groups: Cultural perspective.Dementia, 13(4), 467‑482.

Khan O (2015). Dementia and ethnic diversity: numbers and trends. In (Julia Botsford and Karen Harrison Dening (Eds.).Dementia, culture and ethnicity: issues for all. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers (pp. 21-34).

Khunti K, Kumar S & Brodie J (2009).Diabetes UK and South Asian Health Foundation recommendations on diabetes research priorities for British South Asians. London: Diabetes UK

KMPHO (2014). Kent Gypsy, Roma and Traveller Populations JSNA Chapter Update 2014.Kent and Medway Public Health Observatory

Koffman J (2018).Better Health Briefing 45: Dementia and end of life care for black, Asian and minority ethnic communities. Race Equality Foundation briefing paper

Kröger T & Zechner M (2009). Migration and Care: Giving and Needing Care across National Borders. Finnish Journal of Ethnicity and Migration, 4(2), 17-26.

Kurzban R & Leary MR (2001). Evolutionary origins of stigmatization: The functions of social exclusion. Psychological Bulletin, 127(2), 187‑208.

La Fontaine J, Ahuja J, Bradbury NM, Phillips S & Oyebode JR (2007). Understanding dementia amongst people in minority ethnic and cultural groups. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 60(6), 605‑614.

Landrine H & Klonoff EA (1994). Cultural diversity in causal attributions for illness: The role of the supernatural. Journal of Behavioral Medicine,17(2), 181‑193.

Lawrence V, Samsi K, Banerjee S, Morgan C & Murray J (2011). Threat to Valued Elements of Life: The Experience of Dementia across Three Ethnic Groups. The Gerontologist, 51(1), 39‑50.

Lawrence V, Murray J, Samsi K & Banerjee S (2008). Attitudes and support needs of Black Caribbean, south Asian and White British carers of people with dementia in the UK. British Journal of Psychiatry, 193(03), 240‑246.

Lee SE, Lee HY & Diwan S (2010). What do Korean American immigrants know about Alzheimer’s disease (AD)? The impact of acculturation and exposure to the disease on AD knowledge. Int Jour of Ger Psychiat, 25, 66-73.

LeedsGATE (2015). Dementia in Gypsy and Traveller communities. Leeds Gypsy and Traveller Exchange.

Levesque JF, Harris MF, Russell G (2013). Patient-centred access to health care: conceptualising access at the interface of health systems and populations. Int. J. Equity Health,12(18), 1-9.

Link BG & Phelan JC (2001). Conceptualizing Stigma.Annual Review of Sociology, 27(1), 363‑385.

Link BG & Phelan JC (2006). Stigma and its public health implications. The Lancet, 367(9509), 528‑529.

Liversage A & Jakobsen V (2016). Unskilled, Foreign, and Old: A Life Course Perspective on Immigrant Poverty. GeroPsych, 29(2), 93‑103.

Livingston G, Sommerlad A, Orgeta V, Costafreda SG, Huntley J, Ames D, … Mukadam N (2017). Dementia prevention, intervention, and care. The Lancet, 390(10113): 2673‑2734.

Mackenzie J (2006). Stigma and dementia: East European and South Asian family carers negotiating stigma in the UK. Dementia, 5(2), 233‑247.

Mahoney DF, Cloutterbuck J, Neary S & Zhan L (2005). African American, Chinese, and Latino family caregivers’ impressions of the onset and diagnosis of dementia: cross-cultural similarities and differences. The Gerontologist, 45(6), 783‑792.

Majlesi AR & Plejert C (2018). Embodiment in tests of cognitive functioning: A study of an interpreter-mediated dementia evaluation. Dementia, 17(2), 138‑163. Published online first 27 February, 2016.

Matías-Guiu JA, Valles-Salgado M, Rognoni T, Hamre-Gil F, Moreno-Ramos T & Matías-Guiu J (2017). Comparative Diagnostic Accuracy of the ACE-III, MIS, MMSE, MoCA, and RUDAS for Screening of Alzheimer Disease.Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 43(5‑6), 237‑246.

Mazaheri M, Eriksson LE, Nasrabadi AN, Sunvisson H & Heikkila K (2014). Experiences of dementia in a foreign country: qualitative content analysis of interviews with people with dementia. BMC Public Health, 14(794), 1-9.

McGregor J (2007). ‘Joining the BBC (British Bottom Cleaners)’: Zimbabwean Migrants and the UK Care Industry.Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 33(5), 801‑824.

MECOPP (2012).Hidden carers, unheard voices: informal caring within the Gypsy/ Traveller community in Scotland. Edinburgh: MECOPP.

Mersha TB & Abebe T (2015). Self-reported race/ethnicity in the age of genomic research: its potential impact on understanding health disparities. Human Genomics, 9(1), 1.

Mkhonto F & Hanssen I (2018). When people with dementia are perceived as witches. Consequences for patients and nurse education in South Africa. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 27(1‑2), e169‑e176.

Mohammed (2017).A fragmented pathway: experience of the South Asian community and the dementia care pathway – a care giver’s journey. University of Salford: Manchester

Mohammed (2018).Cultural awareness session. Presentation at Race Equality Foundation event on 15 March 2018 in Bristol (UK)

Moodley P (2005). Ethnicity: Relationship to stigmatisation of people with mental illness. In (Ed. Crisp AH),Every family in the land: understanding prejudice and discrimination against people with mental illness, p.83. London: Royal Society of Medicine Press Ltd.

Morhardt D, Pereyra M & Iris M (2010). Seeking a Diagnosis for Memory Problems: The Experiences of Caregivers and Families in 5 Limited English Proficiency Communities. Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders, 1.

Moriarty J, Sharif N & Robinson J (2011).SCIE Research Briefing 35 Black and Minority Ethnic People with Dementia and their Access to Support and Services. London: Social Care Institute for Excellence.

Moriarty J (2015). Accessing Support and Services. In Julia Botsford and Karen Harrison Dening (Eds).Dementia, culture and ethnicity: issues for all. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers (pp.85-105)

Mukadam N, Cooper C, Basit B & Livingston G (2011). Why do ethnic elders present later to UK dementia services? A qualitative study. Int Psychogeriatrics, 23(07), 1070‑1077.

Mukadam N, Cooper C & Livingston G (2011). A systematic review of ethnicity and pathways to care in dementia. Int Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 26(1), 12‑20.

Mukadam N, Waugh A, Cooper C & Livingston G (2015). What would encourage help-seeking for memory problems among UK-based South Asians? A qualitative study. BMJ Open, 5(9), e007990.

Næss A & Moen B (2015). Dementia and migration: Pakistani immigrants in the Norwegian welfare state. Ageing and Society, 35(08), 1713‑1738.

Naqvi RM, Haider S, Tomlinson G & Alibhai S (2015). Cognitive assessments in multicultural populations using the Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Canadian Medical Association Journal, 187(5), E169‑E175.

NHANES - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2006).  Interpretation guidelines.

Nielsen TR, Vogel A, Riepe MW, de Mendonça A, Rodriguez G, Nobili F, … Waldemar G (2011a). Assessment of dementia in ethnic minority patients in Europe: a European Alzheimer’s Disease Consortium survey. Int Psychogeriatrics, 23(01), 86‑95.

Nielsen TR, Vogel A, Phung TKT, Gade A & Waldemar G (2011b). Over- and under-diagnosis of dementia in ethnic minorities: a nationwide register-based study. Int Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 26(11), 1128-1135

Nielsen TR, Andersen BB, Kastrup M, Phung TKT & Waldemar G (2011c). Quality of Dementia Diagnostic Evaluation for Ethnic Minority Patients: A Nationwide Study. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 31(5), 388‑396.

Nielsen TR, Andersen BB, Gottrup H, Lützhøft JH, Høgh P & Waldemar G (2013). Validation of the Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale for Multicultural Screening in Danish Memory Clinics.Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 36(5‑6), 354‑362.

Nielsen TR & Jørgensen K (2013). Visuoconstructional Abilities in Cognitively Healthy Illiterate Turkish Immigrants: A Quantitative and Qualitative Investigation. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 27(4), 681‑692.

Nielsen TR, Antelius E, Spilker RS, Torkpoor R, Toresson H, Lindholm C, … on behalf of the Nordic Research Network on Dementia and Ethnicity. (2015). Dementia care for people from ethnic minorities: a Nordic perspective: Dementia care for people from ethnic minorities: a Nordic perspective.Int Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 30(2), 217‑218.

Nielsen TR & Waldemar G (2016). Knowledge and perceptions of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease in four ethnic groups in Copenhagen, Denmark: Knowledge of dementia in four ethnic groups. Int Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 31(3), 222‑230.

Nielsen TR, Segers K, Vanderaspoilden V, Bekkhus-Wetterberg P, Bjørkløf GH, Beinhoff U, … Waldemar G (2018a). Validation of the Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale (RUDAS) in a multicultural sample across five Western European countries: diagnostic accuracy and normative data. Int Psychogeriatrics, 1‑10.

Nielsen TR, Segers K, Vanderaspoilden V, Bekkhus-Wetterberg P, Minthon L, Pissiota A, … Waldemar G (2018b). Performance of middle-aged and elderly European minority and majority populations on a Cross-Cultural Neuropsychological Test Battery (CNTB).The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 1‑20.

Nolan MR, Davies S, Brown J, Keady J & Nolan J (2004). Beyond « person-centred » care: a new vision for gerontological nursing.Journal of Clinical Nursing, 13(s1), 45‑53.

Oddie W (2011).The restoration of the Friday fast is a historic day for English and Welsh Catholics.

Olafsdóttir M, Foldevi M & Marcusson J (2001). Dementia in primary care: why the low detection rate?Scand J Prim Health Care.19(3), 194–198.

Oommen G, Bashford J & Shah A (2009):Ageing, ethnicity and psychiatric services(cited in Shah 2017)

Ow Yong B & Manthorpe J (2016). The experiences of Indian migrant care home staff working with people with dementia: a pilot study exploring cultural perspectives. Working with Older People, 20(1), 3‑13.

Parker C & Philp I (2004). Screening for cognitive impairment among older people in black and minority ethnic groups. Age and Ageing, 33(5), 447‑452.

Parlevliet J (2017).SYMBOL - Prevalence of dementia among older immigrants in the Netherlands. PowerPoint presentation at Alzheimer Europe annual conference in Berlin (October 2017)

Parlevliet JL, Uysal-Bozkir Ö, Goudsmit M, Campen JP, Kok RM, Riet G, ... & Rooij SE (2016). Prevalence of mild cognitive impairment and dementia in older non-western immigrants in the Netherlands: a cross-sectional study. Int Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 31(9), 1040-1049.

Parveen S, Morrison V & Robinson CA (2013). Ethnicity, familism and willingness to care: Important influences on caregiver mood? Aging & Mental Health, 17(1), 115‑124.

Parveen S, Oyebode J and Downs M (2014). Exploring cross cultural and country responses to dementia: A multi-faith/cultural view. In (Eds. Bamford SM et al.). A compendium of essays: New perspectives and approaches to understanding dementia and stigma. London: ILC-UK (pp.37-41).

Parveen S, Blakey H & Oyebode JR (2018). Evaluation of a carers’ information programme culturally adapted for South Asian families. Int Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 33(2), e199‑e204.

Parveen S, Peltier C & Oyebode JR (2017). Perceptions of dementia and use of services in minority ethnic communities: a scoping exercise. Health & Social Care in the Community, 25(2), 734‑742.

Parveen S & Oyebode J (2018).Better health briefing 46: Dementia and minority ethnic carers. London: Race Equality Foundation

Parveen S (2018).Minority ethnic communities and dementia research: where are we now? PowerPoint Presentation, Alzheimer Europe expert working group meeting at the University of Bradford, 18 May

Patel N, Mirza NR, Lindblad P, Samaoli O & Marshall M (1998).Dementia and Minority Ethnic Older People: Managing Care in the UK, Denmark and France. Russell House Publishing Ltd

Pham T M, Petersen I, Walters K, Raine R, Manthorpe J, Mukadam N & Cooper C (2018). Trends in dementia diagnosis rates in UK ethnic groups: analysis of UK primary care data. Clinical Epidemiology, 10, 949‑960.

Pharos (Dutch Centre of Expertise on Health Disparities) (2018). Factsheets

PICUM and IRCT (2017).EU Health Policy Platform paper on Migration and Health: Framing document.

Plejert C, Antelius E, Yazdanpanah M & Nielsen TR (2015). ‘There’s a letter called ef’ on Challenges and Repair in Interpreter-Mediated Tests of Cognitive Functioning in Dementia Evaluations: A Case Study.Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 30(2), 163‑187.

Plejert C (2018). Issue raised at the Alzheimer Europe expert working group meeting at the University of Bradford, 18 May

Plejert C, Lindholm C & Schrauf RW (2017).Multilingual Interaction and Dementia. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Prince M, Bryce R, Albanese E, Wimo A, Ribeiro W & Ferri CP (2013). The global prevalence of dementia: A systematic review and metaanalysis. Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 9(1), 63-75. e2.

Prince M, Wimo A, Guerchet M, Ali G-C, Wu YT, Prina M & Alzheimer's Disease International (2015).World Alzheimer Report 2015: The Global Impact of Dementia - An analysis of prevalence, incidence, cost and trends. London: Alzheimer’s Disease International

Purandare N, Luthra V, Swarbrick C & Burns A (2007). Knowledge of dementia among South Asian (Indian) older people in Manchester, UK.Int Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 22(8), 777-81.

Qureshi S & Diaz E (2017). Epidemiology of dementia in migrant and ethnic-minority populations. In Sagbakken M & Kumar K (Eds.)Dementia, Ethnic Minorities and Migrants - A Review of the Literature, Report No. 2. Norwegian Centre for Migration and Minority Health (NAKMI) (49-62).

Rattigan S & Sweeney S (2018). ‘We look after our own’: Dementia in gypsy and traveller communities. Friends Families and Travellers (see:

Rauf A (2011).Caring for dementia: exploring good practice on supporting South Asian carers through access to culturally competent service provision. Meri Yaadain Dementia Team, Bradford

Redfield R, Linton R & Herskovits MJ (1936). Memorandum for the Study of Acculturation. American Anthropologist, 38(1), 149‑152.

Regan JL (2014). Redefining dementia care barriers for ethnic minorities: the religion–culture distinction. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 17(4), 345‑353.

Regan JL (2016). Ethnic minority, young onset, rare dementia type, depression: A case study of a Muslim male accessing UK dementia health and social care services. Dementia, 15(4), 702‑720.

Richards M, Brayne C, Dening T, Abas M, Carter J, Price M, … Levy R (2000). Cognitive function in UK community-dwelling African Caribbean and white elders: a pilot study.Int Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15(7), 621‑630.

Rimmer E, Wojciechowska M, Stave C, Sganga A & O’Connell B (2005). Implications of the Facing Dementia Survey for the general population, patients and caregivers across Europe: Implications for Populations, Patients and Caregivers. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 59, 17‑24.

Rock MY (undated).State, nation and nation-state: clarifying misused terminology. GEOG 128, Geography of Int Affairs.

Romero BA (2012). Towards a model of externalisation and denationalisation of care? The role of female migrant care workers for dependent older people in Spain.European Journal of Social Work, 15(1), 45‑61.

Rowland JT, Basic D, Storey JE & Conforti DA (2006). The Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale (RUDAS) and the Folstein MMSE in a multicultural cohort of elderly persons. Int Psychogeriatrics, 18(01), 111.

Royal College of Physicians (2015).Setting higher standards - Work and wellbeing in the NHS: why staff health matters to patient care.London: Royal College of Physicians

Sagbakken M & Kumar K (Eds.) (2017).Dementia, Ethnic Minorities and Migrants - A Review of the Literature, Report No. 2.Norwegian Centre for Migration and Minority Health (NAKMI)

Sagbakken M, Spilker RS & Ingebretsen R (2018). Dementia and migration: family care patterns merging with public care services.Qualitative Health Research, 28(1), 16‑29.

Sahin HA, Gurvit IH, Emre M, Hanagasi HA, Bilgic B & Harmanci H (2006). The attitude of elderly lay people towards the symptoms of dementia. Int Psychogeriatrics, 18(02), 251.

Sandhu R (2018).Should BAME be ditched as a term for black, Asian and minority ethnic people?

Sattar N & Gill JMR (2015). Type 2 diabetes in migrant south Asians: mechanisms, mitigation, and management.The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 3(12), 1004‑1016.

Schilling-Estes N (2006). Dialect variation. In Fasold, R.W. & Connor-Linton, J. (Eds.)An Introduction to Language and Linguistics.Cambridge University Press. Pp. 311-341.

Seeleman MC (2014).Cultural competence and diversity responsiveness: how to make a difference in healthcare. PhD Thesis. University of Amsterdam

Segers K, Benoit F, Colson C, Kovac V, Nury D & Vanderaspoilden V (2013). Pioneers in migration, pioneering in dementia: first generation immigrants in a European metropolitan memory clinic. Acta Neurologica Belgica, 113(4), 435‑440.

Shah A (2007). Demographic Changes among Ethnic Minority Elders in England and Wales: Implications for Development and Delivery of Old Age Psychiatry Services. Int J of Migration, Health and Social Care, 3(2), 22‑32.

Shah A, Dalvi M & Thompson T (2005). Behavioural and psychological signs and symptoms of dementia across cultures: Current status and the future. Int Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20(12), 1187–1195.

Shulman KI (2000). Clock-drawing: is it the ideal cognitive screening test? Int Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15(6), 548‑561.

Smedley A & Smedley BD (2005). Race as biology is fiction, racism as a social problem is real: Anthropological and historical perspectives on the social construction of race. American Psychologist, 60(1), 16‑26.

Smith D, Moreno-Leguizamon C and Grohmann S (2015).End-of-life practices and palliative care among Black and Minority Ethnic Groups (BME). Health Education Kent Surrey and Sussex Vision

Smits C, Jukema J, Duran G, Cumert G & Bakker F (2017).Co-creation with Turkish migrant carers: towards culture sensitive care.PowerPoint presentation at Alzheimer Europe annual conference in Berlin (October 2017)

Smits C, Jukema J, Duran G, Bakker F. (2018). Op weg naar cultuursensitieve zorg. Lessen in cocreatie [Towards culture sensitive care. Lessons in co-creation.] Denkbeeld. Vakblad over dementie, (30) August 2018, pp24-26

Söderman M & Rosendahl SP (2016). Caring for Ethnic Older People Living with Dementia – Experiences of Nursing Staff.Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 31(3), 311‑326.

Soni D (2013). From hijab to burqa – a guide to Muslim headwear. Channel 4 News.

Soumaya A (2018).Cross cultural dementia screening in illiterates with the RUDAS. Master’s thesis. University of Leiden

Spijker A, Verhey F, Graff M, Grol R, Adang E, Wollersheim H & Vernooij-Dassen M (2009). Systematic care for caregivers of people with dementia in the ambulatory mental health service: designing a multicentre, cluster, randomized, controlled trial.BMC Geriatrics, 9(1).

Stangor C & Crandall CS (2003). Threat and the social construction of stigma. In TF Heatherton, RE Kleck, MR Hebl & JG Hull,The Social Psychology of Stigma(pp. 62-87). The Guilford Press.

Stevnsborg L, Jensen-Dahm C, Nielsen T R, Gasse C & Waldemar G (2016). Inequalities in Access to Treatment and Care for Patients with Dementia and Immigrant Background: A Danish Nationwide Study. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 54(2), 505‑514.

Storey JE, Rowland JTJ, Conforti DA et al. (2004). The Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale (RUDAS): a multicultural cognitive assessment scale. Int Psychogeriatr, 16(1), 13–31.

Stroop JR (1935). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of Experim. Psychol.18(6), 643–662.

Suurmond J, Rosenmöller DL, el Mesbahi H, Lamkaddem M & Essink-Bot M-L (2016). Barriers in access to home care services among ethnic minority and Dutch elderly – A qualitative study. International Journal of Nursing Studies,54, 23‑35.

Szczepura A (2005). Access to health care for ethnic minority populations. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 81(953), 141‑147.

Thornicroft G (2006). Shunned: discrimination against people with mental illness. Oxford University Press.

Tonkens E, Verplanke L & de Vries L (2011).Alleen slechte vrouwen klagen. Problemen en behoeften van geïsoleerde allochtone spilzorgers in Nederland. Utrecht: Movisie

Truswell D, Leung M, Lam T & Tan G (2015). The reminiscence tea house. Journal of Dementia Care,

Truswell D (2016). The impact of dementia on migrant communities: A complex challenge in a globalised world. Alzheimer’s, Dementia & Cognitive Neurology, 1(1).

Truswell D (2018).Dementia alliance for culture and ethnicity. Presentation at Race Equality Foundation event on 15 March 2018 in Bristol (UK).

Tsolaki M, Paraskevi S, Degleris N & Karamavrou S (2009). Attitudes and Perceptions Regarding Alzheimer’s Disease in Greece.American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease & Other Dementias, 24(1), 21‑26.

Turner S, Christie A & Haworth E (2005). South Asian and white older people and dementia: A qualitative study of knowledge and attitudes. Diversity in Health and Social Care, 2, 197–209.

Twigg J (2010). Clothing and dementia: A neglected dimension? Journal of Aging Studies, 24(4), 223‑230.

UNESCO (undated).Nation-State, International Migration glossary.

UNESCO (2005). Education for all. Global monitoring report.

Ungerson C (2003). Commodified care work in European Labour Markets. European Societies, 5(4), 377‑396.

Ungerson C (2004). Whose empowerment and independence? A cross-national perspective on ‘cash for care’ schemes. Ageing and Society, 24(02), 189‑212.

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (undated), Victims of the Nazi era: Nazi racial ideology:The Holocaust.Holocaust Encyclopedia. 

Uppal GK, Bonas S & Philpott H (2013). Understanding and awareness of dementia in the Sikh community. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 17(4), 400–414.

Uppal G & Bonas S (2014). Constructions of dementia in the South Asian community: a systematic literature review. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 17(2), 143‑160.

Uysal-Bozkir Ö (2016).PhD Thesis: Health status of older migrants in the Netherlands: Cross-cultural validation of health scales.Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, University of Amsterdam

Uysal-Bozkir Ö, Parlevliet JL & de Rooij SE (2013).  Insufficient cross-cultural adaptations and psychometric properties for many translated health assessment scales: A systematic review. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology,66, 608-618.

van den Broeke J (2017). In need of a collaborative approach: An analysis of collaboration between public health, primary care and social care in deprived neighbourhoods. PhD Thesis, University of Amsterdam

Van Wezel N, Francke A, Kayan-Acun E, ........ & Blom MM (2016). Family care for immigrants with dementia: The perspectives of female family carers living in The Netherlands. Dementia, 15(1), 69–84.

Van Wezel N, Francke AL, Kayan Acun E, Devillé WL, van Grondelle NJ & Blom MM (2016). Explanatory models and openness about dementia in migrant communities: A qualitative study among female family carers. Dementia, 147130121665523.

Vertovec S (2007). Super-diversity and its implications. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 30, 1024–1054.

Voutilainen P, Manninen M & Vaarama M (2003). Finland. In N. Patel (Ed.),Minority Elderly Care in Europe(pp. 115–131). Leeds: Policy Research Institute on Ageing and Ethnicity.

Wadensjö C (1998).Interpreting as interaction. London: Longman

Walsh K & Shutes I (2013). Care relationships, quality of care and migrant workers caring for older people. Ageing and Society,33(03), 393‑420.

Weicht B (2010). Embodying the ideal carer: The Austrian discourse on migrant carers. Int Journal of Ageing and Later Life, (2), 17-52.

Weiner B, Perry RP & Magnusson J (1988). An attributional analysis of reactions to stigmas. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55(5), 738‑748.

Werner P & Heinik J (2008). Stigma by association and Alzheimer’s disease. Aging & Mental Health, 12(1), 92‑99.

Werner P (2005). Social distance towards a person with Alzheimer’s disease. Int Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20(2), 182‑188.

Werner P (2008). Discriminatory behaviour towards a person with Alzheimer’s disease: Examining the effects of being in a nursing home. Aging & Mental Health, 12(6), 786‑794.

Werner P & Davidson M (2004). Emotional reactions of lay persons to someone with Alzheimer’s disease. Int Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19(4), 391‑397.

Werner P, Goldstein D & Buchbinder E (2010). Subjective Experience of Family Stigma as Reported by Children of Alzheimer’s Disease Patients. Qualitative Health Research, 20(2), 159‑169.

Yaghmour SM, Bartlett R & Brannelly T (2018). Dementia in Eastern Mediterranean countries: A systematic review. Dementia, 147130121775377, 1-27.



Last Updated: Thursday 25 March 2021


  • Acknowledgements

    This report received funding under an operating grant from the European Union’s Health Programme (2014-2020) and from the Robert Bosch Stiftung. The content of the report represents the views of the author only and is his/her sole responsibility; it cannot be considered to reflect the views of the European Commission and/or the Consumers, Health, Agriculture and Food Executive Agency or any other body of the European Union. The European Commission and the Agency do not accept any responsibility for use that may be made of the information it contains
  • European Union